Monday, 31 October 2011

Tray Dryer

Tray Dryer

Tray Dryer

Tray Dryer
Model available: 12 trays, 24 trays, 48 trays, 96trays

The dryer is of robust construction built on formed angles of 3mm thick sheet and suitably reinforced with angles and sections. The dryers external walls are manufactured from 1.6mm thick Stainless Steel sheets of 304 quality. The internal of the dryer is built of 1.6 mm thick S.S 304 quality sheets. The internal structure is fully TIG welded and all the internals have ground smooth surfaces. It is insulated with minimum 50 mm thick glasswool insulation and Cladded with S,S, Polished sheets. The dryer is having a fresh air inlet through 20 Micron PP cloth filters and a adjustable air outlet flap and a door at the front. The door is explosion proof and is locked with the help of spring loaded ball latches with suitable pressure. Door lips are having Neoprene rubber Gasket to prevent leakages.

The design and manufacture of the dryer is of high standard of GMP and has an aesthetic look. It is buffed externally to 150 grit matt finish and internally buffed to 220 grit mirror finish.

Electrical heating
The Air inside the Tray Dryer is heated by "U" tube S.S.304 air heaters each of 1 KW.The heaters are fitted on the sides of the dryer to facilitate uniform heating. Maximum temperature attained inside the dryer is 100' C and will be indicated and controlled by a Digital Temperature indicator cum controller over full range of heating load.

Total heating load for it will be
12 Trays Dryer - 4 KW
24 Trays Dryer - 6 KW
48 Trays Dryer - 12 KW
96 Trays Dryer - 24 KW

The heaters will be inserted inside tubular pipe to prevent it from becoing RED HOT. The terminals of the heaters will be brought outside the dryer to make it more safe for operations for solvent based products.
Air Circulation
Air inside the dryer is circulated by one heavy duty axial flow S.S.304 or alluminum blower fitted on a shaft of and driven by l H.P. through belt. The special design of the Blower ensures uniform air circulation so that there is uniform air current over the entire charge loaded in the Trolley inside the dryer. The working of the motor is indicated by lamps in the control panel.

Trays will be manufactured from 1.6 mm SS 304 sheets.Its dimensions are 32" x 16" x 1 l/4". The Trays have rounded corners with' mirror finish from inside and outside. SS 316 quality is available on demand.

Racks And Trolleys
Racks are provided for trays insdie the Dryer. They are of fixed type for 12 and 24 Tarys Models. For 48 and 96 Trays Models. Racks are provided with wheels to slide them in and out of the Dryer. An additional S.S, trolley for Racks for outside movement can be provided on request

Technical Specifications
Model RDTD-24 RDTD-48 RDTD-96
No. Of Trays 24 48 96
Tray size 16 x 32 x 1.25 16 x 32 x 1.25 16 x 32 x 1.25
Heating load at

1000C 6 x1000 W 9 x 1000 W 15 x 1000 W
2000C 9 x1000 W 15 x 1000 W 21 x 1000 W
3000C 12 x1000 W 18 x 1000 W 27 x 1000 W

Tray Dryers


The Practical Action tray dryers aim to fill the gap in the equipment market between the many solar (and assisted solar) drier designs (described in the Practical Action Technical brief on solar drying) and the large industrial equipment.
Semi continuous tray dryer
The range of industrial technologies used for food drying includes; tunnel dryers, spray, roller freeze and tray dryers. Tray dryers are the most suitable in terms of cost and output, for small and medium sized enterprises.
The term tray drying is normally refers to small industrial systems with some form of air heater and a fan to pass air over the product being dried although sun drying on trays or in solar dryers can also be called tray drying.
While small tray dryers are available from Europe and the USA, where they are used in pilot plants and Universities, their cost makes them unaffordable and uneconomic for producers in developing countries.
Practical Action (previously know as ITDG) recognised the need for small, controllable, powered tray dryers that could be constructed by engineers in developing countries mainly from locally available materials that were capable of producing high quality products. This has resulted in a range of tray dryers that can be manufactured at a lower price and there are now tray dryers, based on these designs in many countries with the greatest up-take of the technology in Latin America.
The key point to bear in mind when considering the local construction of such a dryer is to understand the basic principles involved and adapt them to local conditions such as the dimensions of local plywood sheet, common stock steel sizes, social conditions and fuel availability.

Tray dryer principles

Basic airflow pattern

The dryers are made of trays held in a cabinet which is connected to a source of air heated by gas, diesel or bio-mass such as rice husk.  The air temperature is usually controlled by a thermostat which is normally set between 50 and 700C. The air enters the bottom of the chamber below the trays and then rises, through the trays of food being dried, and exits from an opening in the top of the chamber. In the Practical Action systems the trays are designed to force the air to follow a longer zigzag route which increases the air/food contact time and thus improve its efficiency. This system also reduces back pressure which means that cheaper, smaller fans can be used.  The airflow in a typical system is shown in Figure 2. There are three basic types of tray dryer cabinets; batch, semi-continuous and cross flow dryers.  Practical Action has worked with the first two systems.
Practical Action is able to supply information to allow the construction of four dryers. In some cases full drawings and manuals are available together with a case study book and a short video.

Batch Tray Dryer

Batch tray dryer
Batch cabinets are the simplest and cheapest to construct.  The cabinet is a simple large wooden box fitted with internal runners to support the trays of food being processed.  The trays are loaded into the chamber, the doors closed and heated air is blown through the stack of trays until the entire product is dry.  As the hot air enters below the bottom tray, this tray will dry first.  The last tray to dry is the one at the top of the chamber.  The advantages and disadvantages of this system are:
* simple, low cost chamber
* low labour costs – simply load and then unload
* a tendency to over-dry the lower trays
* low efficiency, in terms of furl consumption, in the later stages of drying when most of the trays are dry.

The Practical Action Batch Tray Dryer

This, the smallest dryer in the range, is designed to allow trials to be carried out, the production of samples to demonstrate to buyers and for basic product costings to be calculated.  Due to its low capacity the tea chest dryer is not intended for commercial production but does allow product development at very low cost.
Construction:  plywood walls over wood frame
Dimensions:  0.5 m3
Capacity:  6 trays
Heat source: 2kw electric fan heater wired with external thermostat so that fan runs continuously
Capacity:  approx. 1kg/day


The Semi-Continuous Tray Dryer

Semi-continuous cabinets were developed by Practical Action in order to overcome some of the disadvantages of the batch system.  In a semi-continuous cabinet a lifting mechanism allows all of the trays except the bottom tray to be lifted. It is thus possible to remove the lowest tray as soon as the product is dry. The mechanism then allows all the trays to be lowered (now tray 2 is at the bottom of the stack). This leaves a space at the top of the stack to load a tray of fresh material.
Two types of lifting mechanism are available both of which activate four movable fingers that lift the second tray upwards. One design is operated by a handle which is pulled downwards. The other design, developed in Sri Lanka, has been found more suitable for use by women and here the lifting mechanism is a car screw jack which, on winding up, lifts the four fingers.
Tray lifting mechanism
 The advantages/disadvantages of this system are:
* over-drying is avoided
* product quality is higher
* fuel efficiency is considerably increased
* a higher daily throughput is possible
* the cabinet is however more expensive to construct
* labour costs are higher due to loading and unloading trays at regular intervals
* in order to maximise output 24 hour working is recommended
Typical semi-continuous dryers are shown in Figure 3, which shows the lifting mechanism and the gap above the lowest tray that is ready for removal.
Detail of lifting fingers
1 External lifting mechanism
2 Main lifting lever pivot support
3 Vertical lifting rods
4 Lifting fingers
5 Trays with angle iron edge bearers
6 Inner wall of drying cabinet
7 Lifting finger pivot support
Basic airflow pattern

The Small Practical Action Semi-continuous Tray Dryer

Construction:  Plywood wall over wooden frame
Dimensions:  Cabinet 1.08 x 0.98 x 0.83m
Overall height:  1.9m
Capacity:  13 trays, useful area per tray 0.53m2
Heat source:  Direct gas heater/blower (max output 25kw and 470m3 air/hr
Fuel consumption: 0.5lbs per hour at 50°C
Throughput:  120 kg of herbs per 24 hour cycle
Labour:   3 workers on shift

The Large Practical Action Semi-continuous Tray Dryer

Construction:  plywood walls over angle iron frame
Dimensions:  cabinet 1.4 x 1.2 x 0.9m
Overall height:  2.2m
Capacity:  15 standard trays, each 0.8m2,/sup>
Heat source:  kerosene/diesel indirect heater-blower. Max heat output
   60kw. Air output 2800m3
Fuel consumption: 0.8 gals/hr at 50°C
Throughput:  360 kg/ 24 hrs for herbs
Labour:   3 workers over 24 hrs

High-performance liquid chromatography

High-performance liquid chromatography

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
High-performance liquid chromatography
An HPLC. From left to right: A pumping device generating a gradient of two different solvents, a steel enforced column and an apparatus for measuring the absorbance.
Acronym HPLC
Classification Chromatography
Analytes organic molecules
Other techniques
Related Chromatography
Aqueous Normal Phase Chromatography
Ion exchange chromatography
Size exclusion chromatography
Micellar liquid chromatography
Hyphenated Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
HPLC apparatus.
High-performance liquid chromatography (sometimes referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), HPLC, is a chromatographic technique that can separate a mixture of compounds and is used in biochemistry and analytical chemistry to identify, quantify and purify the individual components of the mixture.
HPLC typically utilizes different types of stationary phases, a pump that moves the mobile phase(s) and analyte through the column, and a detector to provide a characteristic retention time for the analyte. The detector may also provide additional information related to the analyte, (i.e. UV/Vis spectroscopic data for analyte if so equipped). Analyte retention time varies depending on the strength of its interactions with the stationary phase, the ratio/composition of solvent(s) used, and the flow rate of the mobile phase. It is a form of liquid chromatography that utilizes smaller column size, smaller media inside the column, and higher mobile phase pressures.
With HPLC, a pump (rather than gravity) provides the higher pressure required to move the mobile phase and analyte through the densely packed column. The increased density arises from smaller particle sizes. This allows for a better separation on columns of shorter length when compared to ordinary column chromatography.



The sample to be analyzed is introduced, in small volumes, into the stream of mobile phase. The solution moved through the column is slowed by specific chemical or physical interactions with the stationary phase present within the column. The velocity of the solution depends on the nature of the sample and on the compositions of the stationary (column) phase. The time at which a specific sample elutes (comes out of the end of the column) is called the retention time; the retention time under particular conditions is considered an identifying characteristic of a given sample. The use of smaller particle size column packing (which creates higher backpressure) increases the linear velocity giving the components less time to diffuse within the column, improving the chromatogram resolution. Common solvents used include any miscible combination of water or various organic liquids (the most common are methanol and acetonitrile). Water may contain buffers or salts to assist in the separation of the sample components, or compounds such as trifluoroacetic acid which acts as an ion pairing agent.
A further refinement of HPLC is to vary the mobile phase composition during the analysis; gradient elution. A normal gradient for reversed phase chromatography might start at 5% methanol and progress linearly to 50% methanol over 25 minutes; the gradient depends on how hydrophobic the sample is. The gradient separates the sample mixtures as a function of the affinity. This partitioning process is similar to that which occurs during a liquid-liquid extraction but is continuous, not step-wise. In this example, using a water/methanol gradient, more hydrophobic components will elute (come off the column) when the mobile phase consists mostly of methanol (giving a relatively hydrophobic mobile phase).
The choice of solvents, additives and gradient depend on the nature of the column and sample. Often a series of tests are performed on the sample together with a number of trial runs in order to find the HPLC method which gives the best peak separation.


Partition chromatography

A modern self contained HPLC.
Partition chromatography was the first kind of chromatography that chemists developed. The partition coefficient principle has been applied in paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, gas phase and liquid-liquid applications. The 1952 Nobel Prize in chemistry was earned by Archer John Porter Martin and Richard Laurence Millington Synge for their development of the technique, which was used for their separation of amino acids. Partition chromatography uses a retained solvent, on the surface or within the grains or fibres of an "inert" solid supporting matrix as with paper chromatography; or takes advantage of some coulombic and/or hydrogen donor interaction with the solid support. Molecules equilibrate (partition) between a liquid stationary phase and the eluent. Known as Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC) in HPLC, this method separates analytes based on polar differences. HILIC most often uses a bonded polar stationary phase and a non-polar, water miscible, mobile phase. Partition HPLC has been used historically on unbonded silica or alumina supports. Each works effectively for separating analytes by relative polar differences, however, HILIC has the advantage of separating acidic, basic and neutral solutes in a single chromatogram. [1]
The polar analytes diffuse into a stationary water layer associated with the polar stationary phase and are thus retained. Retention strengths increase with increased analyte polarity, and the interaction between the polar analyte and the polar stationary phase (relative to the mobile phase) increases the elution time. The interaction strength depends on the functional groups in the analyte molecule which promote partitioning but can also include coulombic (electrostatic) interaction and hydrogen donor capability.
Use of more polar solvents in the mobile phase will decrease the retention time of the analytes, whereas more hydrophobic solvents tend to increase retention times.

Normal-phase chromatography

Also known as normal-phase HPLC (NP-HPLC), or adsorption chromatography, this method separates analytes based on adsorption to a stationary surface chemistry and by polarity. It was one of the first kinds of HPLC that chemists developed. NP-HPLC uses a polar stationary phase and a non-polar, non-aqueous mobile phase, and works effectively for separating analytes readily soluble in non-polar solvents. The analyte associates with and is retained by the polar stationary phase. Adsorption strengths increase with increased analyte polarity, and the interaction between the polar analyte and the polar stationary phase (relative to the mobile phase) increases the elution time. The interaction strength depends not only on the functional groups in the analyte molecule, but also on steric factors. The effect of sterics on interaction strength allows this method to resolve (separate) structural isomers.
The use of more polar solvents in the mobile phase will decrease the retention time of the analytes, whereas more hydrophobic solvents tend to increase retention times. Very polar solvents in a mixture tend to deactivate the stationary phase by creating a stationary bound water layer on the stationary phase surface. This behavior is somewhat peculiar to normal phase because it is most purely an adsorptive mechanism (the interactions are with a hard surface rather than a soft layer on a surface).
Partition and NP-HPLC fell out of favor in the 1970s with the development of reversed-phase HPLC because of a lack of reproducibility of retention times as water or protic organic solvents changed the hydration state of the silica or alumina chromatographic media. Recently it has become useful again with the development of HILIC bonded phases which improve reproducibility.

Displacement chromatography

The basic principle of displacement chromatography is: A molecule with a high affinity for the chromatography matrix (the displacer) will compete effectively for binding sites, and thus displace all molecules with lesser affinities.[2] There are distinct differences between displacement and elution chromatography. In elution mode, substances typically emerge from a column in narrow, Gaussian peaks. Wide separation of peaks, preferably to baseline, is desired in order to achieve maximum purification. The speed at which any component of a mixture travels down the column in elution mode depends on many factors. But for two substances to travel at different speeds, and thereby be resolved, there must be substantial differences in some interaction between the biomolecules and the chromatography matrix. Operating parameters are adjusted to maximize the effect of this difference. In many cases, baseline separation of the peaks can be achieved only with gradient elution and low column loadings. Thus, two drawbacks to elution mode chromatography, especially at the preparative scale, are operational complexity, due to gradient solvent pumping, and low throughput, due to low column loadings. Displacement chromatography has advantages over elution chromatography in that components are resolved into consecutive zones of pure substances rather than “peaks”. Because the process takes advantage of the nonlinearity of the isotherms, a larger column feed can be separated on a given column with the purified components recovered at significantly higher concentrations.

Reversed-phase chromatography (RPC)

A chromatogram of complex mixture (perfume water) obtained by reversed phase HPLC
Reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC or RPC) has a non-polar stationary phase and an aqueous, moderately polar mobile phase. One common stationary phase is a silica which has been treated with RMe2SiCl, where R is a straight chain alkyl group such as C18H37 or C8H17. With these stationary phases, retention time is longer for molecules which are less polar, while polar molecules elute more readily. An investigator can increase retention time by adding more water to the mobile phase; thereby making the affinity of the hydrophobic analyte for the hydrophobic stationary phase stronger relative to the now more hydrophilic mobile phase. Similarly, an investigator can decrease retention time by adding more organic solvent to the eluent. RPC is so commonly used that it is often incorrectly referred to as "HPLC" without further specification. The pharmaceutical industry regularly employs RPC to qualify drugs before their release.
RPC operates on the principle of hydrophobic forces, which originate from the high symmetry in the dipolar water structure and play the most important role in all processes in life science. RPC allows the measurement of these interactive forces. The binding of the analyte to the stationary phase is proportional to the contact surface area around the non-polar segment of the analyte molecule upon association with the ligand in the aqueous eluent. This solvophobic effect is dominated by the force of water for "cavity-reduction" around the analyte and the C18-chain versus the complex of both. The energy released in this process is proportional to the surface tension of the eluent (water: 7.3×10−6 J/cm², methanol: 2.2×10−6 J/cm²) and to the hydrophobic surface of the analyte and the ligand respectively. The retention can be decreased by adding a less polar solvent (methanol, acetonitrile) into the mobile phase to reduce the surface tension of water. Gradient elution uses this effect by automatically reducing the polarity and the surface tension of the aqueous mobile phase during the course of the analysis.
Structural properties of the analyte molecule play an important role in its retention characteristics. In general, an analyte with a larger hydrophobic surface area (C-H, C-C, and generally non-polar atomic bonds, such as S-S and others) results in a longer retention time because it increases the molecule's non-polar surface area, which is non-interacting with the water structure. On the other hand, polar groups, such as -OH, -NH2, COO or -NH3+ reduce retention as they are well integrated into water. Very large molecules, however, can result in an incomplete interaction between the large analyte surface and the ligand's alkyl chains and can have problems entering the pores of the stationary phase.
Retention time increases with hydrophobic (non-polar) surface area. Branched chain compounds elute more rapidly than their corresponding linear isomers because the overall surface area is decreased. Similarly organic compounds with single C-C-bonds elute later than those with a C=C or C-C-triple bond, as the double or triple bond is shorter than a single C-C-bond.
Aside from mobile phase surface tension (organizational strength in eluent structure), other mobile phase modifiers can affect analyte retention. For example, the addition of inorganic salts causes a moderate linear increase in the surface tension of aqueous solutions (ca. 1.5×10−7 J/cm² per Mol for NaCl, 2.5×10−7 J/cm² per Mol for (NH4)2SO4), and because the entropy of the analyte-solvent interface is controlled by surface tension, the addition of salts tend to increase the retention time. This technique is used for mild separation and recovery of proteins and protection of their biological activity in protein analysis (hydrophobic interaction chromatography, HIC).
Another important component is the influence of the pH since this can change the hydrophobicity of the analyte. For this reason most methods use a buffering agent, such as sodium phosphate, to control the pH. The buffers serve multiple purposes: they control pH, neutralize the charge on any residual exposed silica on the stationary phase and act as ion pairing agents to neutralize charge on the analyte. Ammonium formate is commonly added in mass spectrometry to improve detection of certain analytes by the formation of ammonium adducts. A volatile organic acid such as acetic acid, or most commonly formic acid, is often added to the mobile phase if mass spectrometry is used to analyze the column effluent. Trifluoroacetic acid is used infrequently in mass spectrometry applications due to its persistence in the detector and solvent delivery system, but can be effective in improving retention of analytes such as carboxylic acids in applications utilizing other detectors, as it is one of the strongest organic acids. The effects of acids and buffers vary by application but generally improve the chromatography.
Reversed phase columns are quite difficult to damage compared with normal silica columns; however, many reversed phase columns consist of alkyl derivatized silica particles and should never be used with aqueous bases as these will destroy the underlying silica particle. They can be used with aqueous acid, but the column should not be exposed to the acid for too long, as it can corrode the metal parts of the HPLC equipment. RP-HPLC columns should be flushed with clean solvent after use to remove residual acids or buffers, and stored in an appropriate composition of solvent. The metal content of HPLC columns must be kept low if the best possible ability to separate substances is to be retained. A good test for the metal content of a column is to inject a sample which is a mixture of 2,2'- and 4,4'- bipyridine. Because the 2,2'-bipy can chelate the metal, the shape of the peak for the 2,2'-bipy will be distorted (tailed) when metal ions are present on the surface of the silica.[citation needed]..

Size-exclusion chromatography

Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), also known as gel permeation chromatography or gel filtration chromatography, separates particles on the basis of size. It is generally a low resolution chromatography and thus it is often reserved for the final, "polishing" step of a purification. It is also useful for determining the tertiary structure and quaternary structure of purified proteins. SEC is used primarily for the analysis of large molecules such as proteins or polymers. SEC works by trapping these smaller molecules in the pores of a particle. The larger molecules simply pass by the pores as they are too large to enter the pores. Larger molecules therefore flow through the column quicker than smaller molecules, that is, the smaller the molecule, the longer the retention time.
This technique is widely used for the molecular weight determination of polysaccharides. SEC is the official technique (suggested by European pharmacopeia) for the molecular weight comparison of different commercially available low-molecular weight heparins.

Ion-exchange chromatography

In ion-exchange chromatography (IC), retention is based on the attraction between solute ions and charged sites bound to the stationary phase. Ions of the same charge are excluded. Types of ion exchangers include:
  • Polystyrene resins – These allow cross linkage which increases the stability of the chain. Higher cross linkage reduces swerving, which increases the equilibration time and ultimately improves selectivity.
  • Cellulose and dextran ion exchangers (gels) – These possess larger pore sizes and low charge densities making them suitable for protein separation.
  • Controlled-pore glass or porous silica
In general, ion exchangers favor the binding of ions of higher charge and smaller radius.
An increase in counter ion (with respect to the functional groups in resins) concentration reduces the retention time. An increase in pH reduces the retention time in cation exchange while a decrease in pH reduces the retention time in anion exchange.
This form of chromatography is widely used in the following applications: water purification, preconcentration of trace components, ligand-exchange chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography of proteins, high-pH anion-exchange chromatography of carbohydrates and oligosaccharides, and others.

Bioaffinity chromatography

This chromatographic process relies on the property of biologically active substances to form stable, specific, and reversible complexes. The formation of these complexes involves the participation of common molecular forces such as the Van der Waals interaction, electrostatic interaction, dipole-dipole interaction, hydrophobic interaction, and the hydrogen bond. An efficient, biospecific bond is formed by a simultaneous and concerted action of several of these forces in the complementary binding sites.

Aqueous normal-phase chromatography

Aqueous normal-phase chromatography (ANP) is a chromatographic technique which encompasses the mobile phase region between reversed-phase chromatography (RP) and organic normal phase chromatography (ONP). This technique is used to achieve unique selectivity for hydrophilic compounds, showing normal phase elution using reverse-phase solvents.[citation needed]

Isocratic flow and gradient elution

A separation in which the mobile phase composition remains constant throughout the procedure is termed isocratic (meaning constant composition). The word was coined by Csaba Horvath who was one of the pioneers of HPLC.[citation needed],
The mobile phase composition does not have to remain constant. A separation in which the mobile phase composition is changed during the separation process is described as a gradient elution.[3] One example is a gradient starting at 10% methanol and ending at 90% methanol after 20 minutes. The two components of the mobile phase are typically termed "A" and "B"; A is the "weak" solvent which allows the solute to elute only slowly, while B is the "strong" solvent which rapidly elutes the solutes from the column. In reverse-phase chromatography, solvent A is often water or an aqueous buffer, while B is an organic solvent miscible with water, such as acetonitrile, methanol, THF, or isopropanol.
In isocratic elution, peak width increases with retention time linearly according to the equation for N, the number of theoretical plates. This leads to the disadvantage that late-eluting peaks get very flat and broad. Their shape and width may keep them from being recognized as peaks.
Gradient elution decreases the retention of the later-eluting components so that they elute faster, giving narrower (and taller) peaks for most components. This also improves the peak shape for tailed peaks, as the increasing concentration of the organic eluent pushes the tailing part of a peak forward. This also increases the peak height (the peak looks "sharper"), which is important in trace analysis. The gradient program may include sudden "step" increases in the percentage of the organic component, or different slopes at different times – all according to the desire for optimum separation in minimum time.
In isocratic elution, the selectivity does not change if the column dimensions (length and inner diameter) change – that is, the peaks elute in the same order. In gradient elution, the elution order may change as the dimensions or flow rate change.[citation needed]
The driving force in reversed phase chromatography originates in the high order of the water structure. The role of the organic component of the mobile phase is to reduce this high order and thus reduce the retarding strength of the aqueous component.


Internal diameter

The internal diameter (ID) of an HPLC column is an important parameter that influences the detection sensitivity and separation selectivity in gradient elution. It also determines the quantity of analyte that can be loaded onto the column. Larger columns are usually seen in industrial applications, such as the purification of a drug product for later use. Low-ID columns have improved sensitivity and lower solvent consumption at the expense of loading capacity.
  • Larger ID columns (over 10 mm) are used to purify usable amounts of material because of their large loading capacity.
  • Analytical scale columns (4.6 mm) have been the most common type of columns, though smaller columns are rapidly gaining in popularity. They are used in traditional quantitative analysis of samples and often use a UV-Vis absorbance detector.
  • Narrow-bore columns (1–2 mm) are used for applications when more sensitivity is desired either with special UV-vis detectors, fluorescence detection or with other detection methods like liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
  • Capillary columns (under 0.3 mm) are used almost exclusively with alternative detection means such as mass spectrometry. They are usually made from fused silica capillaries, rather than the stainless steel tubing that larger columns employ.

Particle size

Most traditional HPLC is performed with the stationary phase attached to the outside of small spherical silica particles (very small beads). These particles come in a variety of sizes with 5 μm beads being the most common. Smaller particles generally provide more surface area and better separations, but the pressure required for optimum linear velocity increases by the inverse of the particle diameter squared.[4][5][6]
This means that changing to particles that are half as big, keeping the size of the column the same, will double the performance, but increase the required pressure by a factor of four. Larger particles are used in preparative HPLC (column diameters 5 cm up to >30 cm) and for non-HPLC applications such as solid-phase extraction.

Pore size

Many stationary phases are porous to provide greater surface area. Small pores provide greater surface area while larger pore size has better kinetics, especially for larger analytes. For example, a protein which is only slightly smaller than a pore might enter the pore but does not easily leave once inside.

Pump pressure

Pumps vary in pressure capacity, but their performance is measured on their ability to yield a consistent and reproducible flow rate. Pressure may reach as high as 40 MPa (6000 lbf/in2), or about 400 atmospheres. Modern HPLC systems have been improved to work at much higher pressures, and therefore are able to use much smaller particle sizes in the columns (<2 μm). These "Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography" systems or RSLC/UHPLCs can work at up to 100 MPa (15,000 lbf/in²), or about 1000 atmospheres. The term "UPLC" is a trademark of the Waters Corporation, but is sometimes used to refer to the more general technique.

Sunday, 30 October 2011

Material Handling Lifting & Fluid Bed Tippers

Material Handling Lifting & Fluid Bed Tippers

This equipment is most useful to lift the IPC to transfer the material from IPC to other container or in hopper of any equipment.
With help of this equipment dust free and very speedy material transfer is possible. The equipment is equipped with one jaw having clamping hooks to clamp the IPC.

The hydraulic system is provided to lift the complete assembly with IPC.
With help of the hooks first clamp the IPC with jaw of the Lifter. Lift the whole assembly with IPC at a desirable height. Finally height can be adjust as per requirement to transfer the material which are in the IPC. Discharge the material in other container or any other hopper, with help of butterfly valve which is provided at discharge of IPC.

Material Handling Lifting & Fluid Bed Tippers

Mini Cota

Mini Cota

Mini Cota
General Specifications Of “The Bombay Engineering Works” Minicota

(Semi automatic Spray coating Machine ) is mainly designed to replace the conventional method of manual coating of tablets and granules.

Mini cota is comprised of pressure vessel whish can be provided with S.S. jacket (for Sugar Coating) with controlled heaters, sagety valve, pneumatic stirrer (Oscillating type) , spraying nozzles and compact control panel with Pneumatic cylinder for intermittent spray with timer.

Operation: Vessel is filled with coating solution and pressurized by oil/ moisture free compressed air at pressure of 3 to 4 Kgs/cm 2 to get unifirm atomized conical spray. The coating is done by spray guns which are mounted on a heavy S.S stand can can be adjusted. Duration of air and liquid spray is controlled by a Digital Timer and Pneumatic cylinder through a solenoid valve.

Silent Features:

1. It is available with two spray guns mounted on S.S heavy stand which can be adjusted according to requirement.
2. Provided with Penumatic Stirrer
3. specially designed pneumatic cylinder is used which avoids dripping of liquid when spraying is stopped
4. All contact parts are of S.S. 304 / 316
5. Spray guns are of Bullows make
6. It is available in 25 ltrs, 50 ltrs, 100 ltrs & 200 ltrs size

Planatary Mixers

Planatary MixersPlanatary Mixers

General Specifications Of “The Bombay Engineering Works” Planatary Mixer

Planatary Mixer : This equipment is basically a mixing assembly where the agitation pattern is of the planetary nature The beater or the agitation assembly rotate around itself as well as travel in a circle in the bowl thereby achieving intimate mixing. Because of special design feature of shifting the mass is uniformly and intimately mixed. The unit consists of Bowl SS Cylindrical bowl with torrispherical dished bottom with inside surface polished to smooth finish. MS Jacket on cylindrical and torrispherical area to operated on 3 Kg / cm sq. Steam pressure Complete with steam inlet and cold water inlet and outlet connections with standard fitting like pressure gauge, vent cock, release valve and drain. Bowl also suitable for vacuum application and fitted with 3 nos. Of castor wheel, two fixed and one swivel type. Suitable locking lugs for fixing bowl to the machine.

Mass Mixer

Mass Mixer

Mass Mixer
Sheel: Consisiting of 'U' trough of suitable dimensions. Construction of S.S. and side plates duly M.S. stiffened from outside and from inside with S.S.
Mixing Mechanism: Paddle type blades welded to the main shaft provide for efficient mixing of thick heavy material. PTFE gland mechanism provided at shaft ends prevents ingress of external powder into the trough and prevents leakage.
Charging: From the top charging can be done through a hingeable lid, hopper or Nozzle can be provided for additional spraying of additives.
Discharge: By bottom discharge slide Iris or Butterfly valve of suitable diameter, for regulated discharge.
Drive: Consisting of suitable H.P. TEFC 3 phase ac 415v / 50 cycles motor coupled to suitable worm gear, with driving shafts mounted on suitable plummer block.
Mounting: Mounted on suitable ISMC Section Stand, with protective covers for belts and couplings.
MOC: All contact parts in S.S. Constructions. Complete unit with S.S. cover and all surfaces polished to mirror dull finish. MS parts dull painted to smooth finish.
Option Available: The control panel is mounted on platform and is provided with
1. Unit with FLP
2. Unit in S.S. 316
3. GMP Model with M.S. parts cladded with S.S.

Saturday, 29 October 2011

Filter Press

Filter PressFilter Press

“The Bombay Engineering Works” has been actively involved in the manufacturing of various types of filteration systems for more than eight years viz. sparkler, spiral, bag, leaf, neutsche, etc.

It now adds one more to its range by introducing a new generation of Zero Hold-up Horizontal Plate closed pressure filter, made first time in India for clarification and separation of solids from liquid.

Our normal practice, the filter is thoroughly tested in our factory & proved before releasing for marketing.

Turn Table

Turn Table

Turn Table (UN Scrambler) G.M.P. Model :
    Turn Table
  • Construction AISI S.S. 304 Quality.
  • Structure 1.25 S.S. Square pipe.
  • Speed Variable Step pully System.
  • S.S. Elegantly Matt Finished Body.
  • Suitable for different type of container.
  • Height adjustable 800 mm + 50 mm.
Models available in 24” , 30” , 36” , 42” diameters

Bottle Washing Machine

Bottle Washing Machine

Bottle Washing Machine

Technical Specification:
Wash Cycle First Wash : 4000Ltrs/Hour Approx at 15PSI.(Detergeant Water).
Second Wash : Minimum Consumption as such, water loss during
recirculation shalL be compensated. (Steem/Hot
Third Wash : 700 Ltrs/Hour Approx at 15 PSI. (D.M. or DL. Water).
Fourth Wash : 15 PSI (Air)
Outside wash : 1200 Ltrs/Hour Approx at 15 PSI (Ordinary Water).
Electrical Motor 0.5 HP/440 Volts/3 Phase/50Hz (four wire) For Main Machine.
1 HP/440 Volts/3 Phase/50Hz (Four wire) For Water Pump.
Ele. Heater 3 KW. (Four Hot Water)
Container Size 28 mm to 85 mm, Maximum Height 280 mm
Neck Size
20 mm to 38 mm, Maximum Height 280 mm (With the help of required change parts)
Overall Dimension 1550 mm(L) X 1700 mm (W) X 1350 (H) Approx
Geneva Mechanism Out side wash system
S.S. Elegantly
Matt Finish Body
70 Ltrs. capacity water tank (Two Nos.)



Centrifugal monoblock pumps & lobe pumps in sanitary design are available in various sizes and capacities. Pumps can be used for transfer of liquids, semi solids etc. All pumps are in S.S. 316 contact parts and are available from 0.5 HP to 20 Hp capacities. Inlet & Outlet can be given in Triclover or Din fittings as per clients requirements.


Blister Packing Machine

Blister Packing MachineBlister Packing Machine

General Specifications Of “The Bombay Engineering Works” Blister Packing Machine
MODEL 150 300
TOTAL FORMING AREA MIN. 25 x 110MM / MAX. 100 X 110 MM MIN 25 X 210 MMMAX 102 X 210 MM
PACKS/MIN 150 300
TABLETS/ MIN 1500 3000

DM Water Piping & Loop System

DM Water Piping & Loop SystemDM Water Piping & Loop System

Vessels and tanks are manufactured as per clients requirements and space available for installations. Tanks and vessels are available in various designs and options such as
  • Plain storage tanks with loose top lid & either flat of dished bottom
  • Manufacturing vessels with agitators
  • Reactors
  • Vessels under vacuum / without vacuums.
  • Jacketed vessels and tanks.
  • Vessels and tanks with limped coils etc
  • Horizantal, capsule shaped, etc tanks available.
Vessels and tanks are available from 50 ltrs to 100000 ltrs in any shape and size as per clients requirements.

DM Water Tank

DM Water Tank

The Facility Consists Of :

Sugar Syrup Vessel

Online sugar syrup prefilter

Manufacturing Vessel

Storage Vessel

Vacuum system for transfer of sugar syrup

Filter press / Inline Homogeniser

Product piping

Control panels
Unique Features Of The Facility :
  • The plant is designed to be operated by one operator and one helper, saving on precious man-power costs.
  • Sugar syrup and manufacturing vessels are provided with limpet coils for heating and cooling, designed for internal vacuum to facilitate transfer of sugar directly from stores to sugar syrup vessel.
  • Sugar syrup is transferred to manufacturing vessel through online sugar syrup prefilter by vacuum.
  • Entry of all propeller agitators are from bottom through a specially designed cartridge mechanical seal with TC/TC seal face.
  • The advantage of the bottom propeller agitator over the conventional agitator is that there are no vibrations of shaft, no couplings in the drive assembly, leading to lower maintenance cost.
  • Pipes, pipe fittings and valves are of SS 316, seamless, internally electropolished with DIN standard unions and silicon Gaskets.
  • Manhole of all the vessels are equipped with davit fitting and the cover of the manhole slides instead of being lifted.
Process Control :

Values like current, product temperature are displayed digitally on the electrical control panel.
The mechanical seal is equipped with a water circulating system and has a water detection sensor which trips the motor, if the water circulation to the seal is interrupted.

Capacities Available :

500 litres to 15000 litres.

DM Water Tank
Large View

Drain Trap

Drain Trap

Drain TrapWe are engaged in offering our clients with Drain Traps. These are widely used in Inline agitation system, wherein the possibility of materials –Liquid or Solid passing through it, without subjected to intense hydraulic and mechanical shear actions are zero. In these traps the suction pipe (inlet pipe) is centrally mounted & outlet is radically mounted, therefore it is physically impossible for any material to pass from inlet to outlet without exposed to agitation. The stator which surrounds rotor is provided with various type of opening i.e. round, square, rectangular & with perforation. This ensures that all the critical demand of Mixing, Emulsifying, Disintegration & Dispersion of solids, suspension can be met out by same equipment
  • The machine is versatile & has completely revolutionized the traditional mixing techniques
  • Here close tolerance of rotor with the stator produces high hydraulic shearing & mechanical action that ensures that material entrapped between rotor & stator is subjected to tremendous shearing actions each minute

Material Handling Lifting & Fluid Bed Tipper

Material Handling Lifting & Fluid Bed Tipper

Material Handling Lifting & Fluid Bed Tipper
With the support of our engineers, we are engaged in manufacturing a wide array of Material Handling Lifting & Fluid Bed Tippers. The tippers offered by us are used for lifting the IPC to transfer the material from IPC to other container or in hopper of any equipment. Trippers offer a dust free and very speedy material transfer. Moreover, it is fitted with one jaw having clamping hooks to clamp the IPC. The hydraulic system is also provided to lift the complete assembly with IPC.
  • With help of the hooks first clamp the IPC with jaw of the Lifter
  • Lift the whole assembly with IPC at a desirable height
  • Finally height can be adjust as per requirement to transfer the material which are in the IPC
  • Discharge the material in other container or any other hopper, with help of butterfly valve which is provided at discharge of IPC
Salient Features
  • GMP point of view equipment provided with S.S. cladding base, SS guards, SS cover on motor
  • No exposed painted surfaces on top of the machine
  • Hydraulic power pack is also covered with SS304 cover ( In GMP Model )
  • Very less material transfer time making the next process earlier & save time. Dust free system save environment of working area. The system can be operated by single operator.
  • Contact parts SS304 provided as a standard. SS 316 can be provided as an optional facility.
  • Intermediate Product Container: IPC
  • Capacity in Liters: 50 /75 / 110 / 220 Liters
  • All IPC’s are provided with Dust Tight Cover & Butter Fly Valve with Food Grade Gasket & Detachable Trolley with Castor Wheel Mounted Legs
Cylindrical Container
  • Capacity in Liters : 50 /75 / 110 / 220 Liters
  • Cylindrical Containers are provided with Loose Cover & Detachable Trolley With Castor Wheel Mounted Legs)

Friday, 28 October 2011

Solid wall pans for food applications



GS RA equipment are especially designed to offer the most modern sugar coating processing solutions. They fit an extremely wide range of food and confectionery products like gums, chocolate cores, candies, jelly beans, almonds, peanuts etc. regardless of their size, shape, hardness, etc..

- The use of a solid wall pan allows the processing of all product sizes and shapes without clogging.
- The shape of the pan and surface smoothness ensure perfect mixing and uniform distribution of coating material.
- Possibility to fit the machine with a powder dosing unit that can be used to integrate coating material in powder form to the sprayed sugar solution.
- The drying system based on its efficient and uniform air blow, ensures an ideal modulated result in accordance with the specific product features.
Model RA 70 RA 150 RA 300 RA 400 RA 600 RA 800 RA 1200
Minimum/maximum working capacity (litres)* 40÷70 70÷150 150÷300 200÷400 350÷650 400÷800 800÷1,200
Pan diameter (mm) 1,050 1,280 1,580 1,630 2,000 2,200 2,350
Pan mouth diameter (mm) 400 450 520 730 473 730
Pan motor power (kW) 1.1 1.5 3 5.5 7.5 11
Process air delivery (m3/h) 800 1,100 1,400 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,500
*Approx. data (depending on core shape and specific weight)


Tablets and capsules weight checking machines



Precisa is an automatic machine that has been designed and constructed for 100% weight control and selection of pharmaceutical products in hard gelatine capsules and in tablets. The machine automatically conveys the product from the feeding hopper to the weighing cells. After the weighing, values are processed by the machine computer, which sends any out-of-weight product to a specific container.

- 100% printout of production report.
- Quick size changeover.
- Automatic unclogging of feeding channels.
Model PRECISA 12
for tablets
for capsules
for capsules
for capsules*
Maximum output (units/hour) 90,000 120,000 160,000 200,000
Power supply AC three phase without neutral
Installed power 7.5 kW - 50 Hz
(optionals included)
7 kW- 50 Hz (optionals included)
Compressed air 400 dm3/min - 6 bar  
Weight 1,630 1,250 1,350 1,360
Weighing range 1 ÷ 5,000 mg
Scale precision ± 1 mg
Feeding hopper capacity (lt) 30 34 40 45
Product Tablets:
round, oval, oblong, elliptical
000, 00, 0, 0L, 1, 2, 3, 4
VEGICAPS: vegetable capsules
*Can be fitted with Precisa 12 kit for tablets



IMILL ( Calibrating milling Systems )



The IMILL are quick calibrating milling systems, suitable for wet or dry products used in the pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries. They can perform sieving, calibration, size reduction and deagglomeration of lumps.

- IMILL can operate with gravity feeding.
- The calibration cones are different according to the shape and dimensions.
- Available in two versions: Free Standing or Integrated. The first one is a basic model for manual feeding of the product and the second one can be integrated with high shear mixer granulators, specially indicated for wet granules.
Power (kW) 4 4
Speed (rpm) 700-1,500 700-1,500
Variation Electronic
Weight (kg) 280